Brijesh Hirani Ebrahim Mostafavi
An estimated 700,000 people die yearly around the world because they have an infection that has become immune to the antibiotics and drugs used to treat it. Therefore, there is an unmet need to develop biomaterials, which exhibit effective antimicrobial properties. Herein we engineered nanocomposite hydrogels by using a biocompatible and biomimetic polymer matrix, Gelatin methacryloyl (GelMA) loaded with novel rose-spike like structure Zinc Oxide tetrapods (ZnO-T). The nanocomposite hydrogels were engineered by dispersing various concentrations of ZnO-T in GelMA prepolymer solution. Then, the physical, chemical and antibacterial properties of the nanocomposite hydrogels were evaluated by measuring the elastic and compressive modulus, elasticity, tissue adhesion, swellability, degradation and different antimicrobial tests. We also compared these properties with commercially ZnO spherical (ZnO-C) nanoparticles. The results showed that incorporating ZnO particles with different-shape particles significantly influenced the physicochemical and antimicrobial activities of the resultant composite Hydrogels. Moreover, standard adhesion tests revealed higher tissue adhesion for ZnO-T loaded hydrogel as compared to ZnO-C incorporated nanocomposite, which can be due to the shape of ZnO-T, which may facilitate mechanical interlocking with the native tissues. Additionally, we exposed the engineered nanocomposites, ranging from 0 to 2 (%W/V) to both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli (E.Coli) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P.a) bacteria) to evaluate antimicrobial properties, which shows that hydrogels loaded with ZnO-T offered greater antibacterial activity as compared to Kanamycin(Commercial antibiotic) and ZnO-C. Therefore, the engineered Nano-composite adhesive hydrogel has potential application in various surgical procedures that prone to risk of infection.